Malignant Tumor

Malignant Tumor

Malignant Tumor

Malignant tumor is uncontrolled proliferation of modified tissue cells. Growth of any malignant tumor in the body disrupts its normal functioning.

Malignant Tumor Distinction

All malignant tumors differ depending on the type of abnormal cells:

Carcinoma or cancer originates from epithelial tissue cells.

Melanoma originates from melanocytes.

Sarcoma originates from the cells of connective tissues, muscles and bones.

Leukemia originates from bone marrow stem cells.

Lymphoma originates from damaged lymphatic tissue cells.

Teratoma originates from the cells of embryos.

Glioma originates from glial cells.

Choriocarcinoma originates from placental tissue cells.

Some types of malignant tumor affect mainly children and adolescents in the first 5 years from birth.

Definition of Malignant Tumor

In order to define a malignant tumor, it is necessary to know the basic symptoms of malignancy manifestation:

• different structure and behavior of cells from the underlying tissue;

• no cell membrane, separating the tumor from the rest of the body;

• rapid active growth and expansion of the tumor;

• tumor capacity to expand to nearby tissues through the blood vessels and lymphatic viae.

Here are the most characteristic symptoms:

• abnormal induration or swelling;

• bleeding;

• inflammatory processes;

• jaundice;

• enlarged lymph nodes;

• bone pain and fractures;

• neurological sensations;

• weight loss;

• lack of appetite;

• anemia;

• increased sweating.

Difference between Malignant & Benign Tumor

1. Unlike benign tumors, malignant tumors do metastasize.

2. Benign tumors.

• have got cell membranes.

• do not adhere to underlying tissues and organs.

• may stop growing and return to the original state of tissue.

• do not result in recurrence.

3. Malignant tumors.

• have got no cell membranes.

• proliferate widely.

• disrupt the normal functioning of organs and systems in the body. After removing any malignant tumor, metastases may still remain and form a new tumor.

Cerebral Malignant Tumor

This type of tumor is a solid formation either of modified cells or metastases from other organs.

Cerebral malignant tumor can form at any part of the brain.

Its severity depends primarily on location, size and growth rate.

Headache is the most characteristic symptom, but nausea, bursting pain and a feeling of heaviness go before it. In addition to headaches, mental illness or coma may occur. In some cases, cerebral malignant tumor causes disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

The potential for survival depends on the promptness in responding, timeliness of treatment, type of tumor, its size and location, patient age and general health.

Malignant Tumor of the Breast

The first symptoms can be easily detected after self-examination:

• abnormal induration or swelling in the breast.

• change in the shape and contours of the breast.

• breast skin dimpling or shrinkage.

• peeling of the breast skin.

• cavities when lifting arms up.

• recess of the nipple.

• nipple bleeding.

• abnormal induration or swelling of the nipple.

• change in the breast structure while mammary palpation.

• pain in the breast.

• swelling in the armpit or in the shoulder area.

• enlarged lymph nodes under the arm.

With early detection, treatment and prevention of malignant breast tumor, it is possible to get rid of abnormal masses and avoid all the negative consequences.

Malignant Tumor of the Uterus

Chronic diseases and inflammation can cause malignant tumors in the uterus. Sometimes, it results from endometrium proliferation.

The incipient tumour of the uterine is asymptomatic. As the disease develops, there is specific discharge with foul odor and color changes. In addition, disruption of the menstrual cycle and bleeding between menses may also take place. There may be pain and bleeding during intercourse, as well.

Treatment of uterine cancer is performed by using either surgery or radiation therapy. If no more children are planned, complete dissection is preferable, because it reduces the risks of recurrence.

Malignant Ovarian Tumor

By type, malignant ovarian tumors can be either.

• primary, originated from modified cells, or

• secondary, degenerated from benign tumors.

Typically, malignant ovarian tumor occurs without symptoms. In later stages, there are the following symptoms:

• gastrointestinal disorders.

• difficulty urinating.

• enlargement of abdomen.

• abdominal pain.

• bleeding.

• dropsy of abdomen.

• extreme exhaustion.

Unfavorable heredity, exposure to harmful substances, viral infections, already present benign tumors, metastases from other organs are among the main causes of malignant ovarian tumors.

With radical treatment, the chances of recovery are very high. Without treatment, there is a high risk of death.

Malignant Tumor of the Rectum

The main causes of tumors in the rectum are impaired digestion, gastrointestinal disorders, chronic constipation, bowel polyps and villous tumors.

Here are the most characteristic symptoms:

• bleeding.

• disruption of intestine functioning.

• manifestations of pain.

• discharge/excrement.

Treatment of rectum malignant tumors is mainly surgical: the affected part is removed.

Gastric Malignant Tumor

Malignant tumors in the stomach either originate from connective tissue cells or have metastatic origins. The greatest harm to the stomach is done by sarcoma, resulting from benign tumors.

The disease develops, but there is no damage to gastric membranes. Metastases spread within the lymph nodes, lungs and liver.

Malignant gastric tumors often present without symptoms. In some cases, there is loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, frequent nausea and vomiting.

Treatment of gastric malignant tumors is mainly surgical. Even with coarse lesion, the result can be positive. Most often it depends on the proliferation depth and presence/absence of metastases. Without surgical treatment, life expectancy of patients with malignant tumors of the stomach is from 1 to 2 years. Surgery can increase the longevity of up to 5 years or more.

Malignant Tumor of the Kidney

In most cases, malignant tumor of the kidney occurs around the age of 60 years.

Symptoms of kidney malignancy manifest in rather various ways:

• blood in the urine (hematuria).

• local pain.

• palpable tumor.

• temperature rise.

• dramatic weight loss.

• anemia.

• renal dysfunction.

• hypercalcemia.

In men, spermatic cord varication is to be a precursory symptom of tumor presence.

Treatment of kidney malignant tumors is mainly surgical, including the surrounding tissues and lymph nodes. On individual basis, a partial nephrectomy is performed.

Intestinal Malignant Tumor

In the early stages, intestinal malignant tumors present mild symptoms, which are usually not taken into account:

• different types of abdominal pain.

• constipation.

• a rumbling or gurgling noise made by fluid and gas movement in the intestines.

• bloating.

• blood in the stool.

• loss of appetite.

• pale skin.

• constant weakness and fatigue.

• weight loss.

• fever.

Here are the precursory symptoms of intestinal malignant tumors: villous tumors, adenomas, bowel polyps, chronic fistulas and chronic ulcerative colitis.

Intestinal malignant tumors can metastasize to lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and ovaries. Tumor proliferation into the bowel wall increases the risk of blood vessel distruction and intestinal bleeding. Active growth and expansion of this tumor type sometimes leads to intestinal obstruction.



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